KAJIAN LITERATUR SPESIFIKASI MUTU FISIKOKIMIA DAN MIKROBIOLOGIS WATER KEFIR DENGAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI SUBSTRAT DAN STARTER

Veronica P. Effendi, Adolf J.N. Parhusip

Abstrak


ABSTRAK: Water kefir adalah salah satu produk minuman dengan bahan dasar larutan gula atau sari nabati yang melalui proses fermentasi  dengan bibit water kefir dengan ciri khas rasa asam, sedikit rasa manis, serta mengandung alkohol dan karbon dioksida. Salah satu mikroorganisme yang terkandung dalam bibit water kefir, yaitu bakteri asam laktat memiliki peran fungsional sebagai probiotik yang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan saluran pencernaan dan juga bekerja secara sinergis dengan khamir dalam proses fermentasi water kefir. Selain mengandung probiotik, water kefir juga merupakan diversifikasi produk pangan yang dapat menjadi alternatif bagi kelompok vegan, vegetarian, dan individu yang memiliki alergi terhadap produk olahan susu. Kajian literatur dibuat dengan tujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh variasi penambahan konsentrasi substrat dan starter dalam pembuatan water kefir terhadap mutu fisikokimia dan mutu mikrobiologis water kefir. Data dalam kajian literatur diperoleh dari jurnal internasional dan nasional terakreditasi dengan minimal ranking Q4 dan Sinta 4. Melalui kajian literatur yang dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa peningkatan konsentrasi starter hingga 15% dapat menurunkan nilai pH dan meningkatkan kadar alkohol, total asam tertitrasi, viskositas, karbon dioksida, total bakteri asam laktat serta total khamir. Peningkatan substrat hingga konsentrasi 9% dapat menurunkan nilai pH dan viskositas serta meningkatkan kadar alkohol, total asam tertitrasi, karbon dioksida, total bakteri asam laktat serta total khamir. Plasmolisis sel-sel mikroorganisme bibit water kefir dapat terjadi pada penambahan substrat dengan konsentrasi 10% atau lebih sehingga pH meningkat dan kadar alkohol, karbon dioksida, total khamir, dan total bakteri asam laktat pada produk akhir yang dihasilkan menurun.


ABSTRACT: Water kefir is a beverage made from sugar or plant based solution that is fermented with water kefir seeds that has sour and slightly sweet taste characteristics, contains alcohol and carbon dioxide. The microorganisms contained in water kefir seeds such as lactic acid bacteria have a functional role as beneficial probiotics that can promote digestive tract health and work synergistically with yeast in water kefir fermentation. Water kefir is also a form of diversity of food product that can be an alternative for vegans, vegetarians, and individuals who have certain allergies to dairy products. This literature review was made to study the effect of variations of substrate and starter concentrations used in water kefir fermentation on the physicochemical quality and microbiological of water kefir. The data in this literature review were obtained from international and national journals with a minimum ranking of Q4 and Sinta 4. In conclusion, increasing the starter concentration up to 15% can reduce the pH value and increase the alcohol content, total titrated acid, viscosity, carbon dioxide, total lactic acid bacteria and total yeast. The addition of substrate up to 9% can reduce the pH value and viscosity and increase the alcohol content, total titrated acid, carbon dioxide, total lactic acid bacteria and total yeast. Plasmolysis in microorganisms cells happened with the addition of a substrate with a concentration of 10% or more causing the pH value to increase and decreasing the levels of alcohol, carbon dioxide, total yeast, and total lactic acid bacteria in the final product.

Kata Kunci


water kefir, sinergisme, konsentrasi substrat, konsentrasi starter

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Referensi


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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36441/jtepakes.v3i2.558

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