PENGARUH TEKNIK PELUNAKAN TERHADAP RENDEMEN, DERAJAT PUTIH, DAN BENTUK SERTA UKURAN GRANULA PATI SORGUM MANIS (Sorghum bicolor (L). Moench)

Agus Budiyanto, Rahmawati Rahmawati, Abdullah bin Arif, Evan Wijaya

Abstrak


ABSTRAK: Sorgum manis (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) merupakan salah satu serealia sumber karbohidrat yang potensial karena  tahan kekeringan, kadar garam tinggi, serta daya adaptasi pertumbuhan yang baik. Kelemahannya biji sorgum keras sehingga sulit diolah dan menghasikan rendemen rendah. Untuk mengatasinya, telah dilakukan teknik pelunakan biji sorgum  dengan penyosohan dan perendaman, namun belum optimal. Berdasarkan hal tersebut dipelajari 3 metode pelunakan biji sorgum, yaitu  (A1) Biji sorgum tidak sosoh tapi direndam air biasa pada suhu ruang selama 12 jam;  (A2)         Biji sorgum tidak sosoh tapi diseduh air bersuhu 100oC dan didiamkan pada suhu ruang selama 12 jam; (A3) Biji sorgum sosoh satu kali serta direndam air biasa pada suhu ruang selama 12 jam. Mutu pati ditentukan oleh rendemen, derajat putih dan bentuk serta ukuran granula. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa nilai rata-rata rendemen, derajat putih, dan bentuk serta ukuran granula pati yang berbeda. Teknik pelunakan dengan penyosohan menghasilkan rendemen terendah (42,24%) tetapi derajat putih pati sorgum tertinggi (94,53%). Pati yang dihasilkan berbentuk bulat berukuran 7,82 – 24,26 um. Di mana teknik pelunakan dengan penyeduhan air bersuhu 100°C menghasilkan rendemen tertinggi (49,77%), dengan derajat putih lebih tinggi dibandingkan biji yang direndam air biasa (92,97%) dan pati yang dihasilkan berbentuk bulat dan poligonal dengan ukuran granula 5,02 – 22,40 um, dan teknik pelunakan dengan perendaman air biasa menghasilkan rendemen 48%, derajat putih 92,40% dan granula pati berbentuk bulat, segi lima, dan poligonal dengan ukuran 5,02-22,34 um.

 

ABSTRACT: Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) is one of the cereals with potential carbohydrate sources because of its drought resistance, high salt content, and good growth adaptability. The disadvantage is that sorghum seeds are hard so that they are difficult to process and produce low yields. To overcome this, the technique of softening sorghum seeds has been carried out by grinding and soaking, but it has not been optimal. Based on this, three methods of softening sorghum seeds were studied, namely A1: Sorghum seeds were not polished but soaked in plain water at room temperature for 12 hours; A2: Sorghum seeds are not soft, but brewed with water at 98oC and allowed to stand at room temperature for 12 hours; A3: Sorghum seeds grind once and soak in plain water at room temperature for 12 hours. The quality of starch is determined by the yield, the degree of whiteness and the shape and size of the granules. The results showed that the average value of yield, degree of whiteness, and the shape and size of starch granules were also different. The softening technique by grinding resulted in the lowest yield (42.24%) but the highest whiteness degree of sorghum starch (94.53%). The resulting starch is round in size 7.82 – 24.26 um. Where the softening technique by brewing water at a temperature of 98°C resulted in the highest yield (49.77%), with a higher degree of whiteness than seeds soaked in plain water (92.97%) and the starch produced was round and polygonal with a granule size of 5 .02 – 22.40 um. The softening technique with ordinary water immersion resulted in the yield of 48%, the degree of whiteness 92.40% and the starch granules were round, pentagon, and polygonal in size with a size of 5.02-22.34 um.


Kata Kunci


derajat putih, pati, pelunakan, penyosohan, sorgum manis

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Referensi


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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36441/jtepakes.v3i1.535

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