PENILAIAN ASUPAN GIZI DAN TINGKAT KECUKUPAN GIZI IBU HAMIL MENGGUNAKAN METODE 24 HOUR RECALL DI KECAMATAN MOYO HULU , SUMBAWA BESAR, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

Lukman Azis, Ratna Mandasari, Ratna Nurmalita Sari

Abstrak


ABSTRAK: Kekurangan gizi merupakan permasalahan kesehatan global yang terjadi hampir 80% negara di dunia. Ibu hamil merupakan salah satu kelompok populasi yang rentan mengalami kekurangan gizi. Dampak buruk kekurangan gizi tidak hanya pada kesehatan ibu namun juga janinnya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menilai asupan gizi ibu hamil di kecamatan Moyo Hulu kabupaten Sumbawa Besar, Nusa Tenggara Barat. Sebuah metode cross sectional melibatkan 15 ibu hamil berusia 30 tahun dengan usia kehamilan 27 minggu. Metode 24 hour recall digunakan untuk mencatat jenis dan kuantitas konsumsi makanan ibu hamil selama 3 hari secara tidak berututan, yaitu dua hari aktif dan satu hari di akhir pekan. Data hasil recall dianalisa menggunakan software Nutrisurvey. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa rerata asupan energi ibu hamil adalah 2,979 Kkal dan asupan zat gizi makro seperti karbohidrat, protein dan lemak adalah 368 g/hari, 142 g/hari dan 99 g/hari. Hampir seluruh asupan zat gizi mikro ibu hamil telah melebihi Angka Kecukupan Gizi (AKG) namun asupan zat gizi mikro seperti zat besi dan folat masih dibawah AKG yaitu 17 mg/hari dan 286 µg/hari, secara berurutan. Konsumsi serat pangan diketahui juga kurang dari AKG yaitu 15 g/hari. Sementara itu, kelompok makanan yang paling tinggi dikonsumsi ibu hamil adalah bahan pokok berpati seperti nasi (893 g/hari) dan yang paling rendah dikonsumsi adalah buah dan sayur kaya vitamin A (48 g/hari). Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah ibu hamil telah memenuhi asupan zat gizi makro dan mikro meskipun asupan zat besi, folat dan serat pangan masih belum memenuhi rekomendasi AKG karena asupan buah dan sayur yang rendah. 
ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a global health problem that occurs almost 80% countries in the world. Pregnant women are one of the population groups that are vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies. The effects of nutritional deficiencies not only affect the mothers’ health but also the fetus. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional intake of pregnant women in Moyo Hulu sub-district, Sumbawa Besar district, West Nusa Tenggara. A cross sectional method involved 15 pregnant women aged 30 years with a gestational age of 27 weeks. The 24-hour recall method was used to record the type and quantity of foods consumed by pregnant women for 3 non-consecutive days; two weekdays and one weekend. The recall data were analyzed using Nutrisurvey software. The results of this study indicated that the average energy intake of pregnant women was 2,979 Kcal and the intake of macronutrients such as carbohydrates, protein and fat were 368 g/day, 142 g/day and 99 g/day. Almost all micronutrient intakes of pregnant women had exceeded the Angka Kecukupan Gizi (AKG), but the intake of macronutrients such as iron and folate were still below the AKG of 17 mg/day and 286 g/day, respectively. Consumption of dietary fiber was also known to be less than the AKG, which was 15 g/day. Meanwhile, the highest food group consumed by pregnant women was starchy staples e.g. rice (893 g/day) and the lowest consumed were vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables (48 g/day). The conclusion of this study was that pregnant women had fulfilled their macro- and micronutrient even though  iron, folate and dietary fiber did not meet the AKG recommendation due to low intake of  fruits and vegetables.

Kata Kunci


asupan gizi, ibu hamil, 24 hour recall, kelompok makanan, tingkat kecukupan gizi

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Referensi


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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36441/jtepakes.v4i2.1325

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