STUDI LITERATUR PERBANDINGAN MUTU MIKROBIOLOGIS DAN FISIKOKIMIA MINUMAN FERMENTASI KEFIR DARI BEBERAPA JENIS SUSU

Meily Tania, Adolf J.N. Parhusip

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ABSTRAK: Kefir merupakan produk olahan susu terfermentasi yang menggunakan bibit kefir dan sering menggunakan susu sapi dalam proses pembuatannya. Pemanfaatan susu kambing dan susu kerbau dapat menjadi alternatif dari susu sapi karena memiliki kandungan nutrisi yang lebih unggul. Susu dari jenis hewan ternak yang berbeda memiliki komposisi nutrisi yang berbeda sehingga memengaruhi karakteristik kefir secara mikrobiologis dan fisikokimia. Tujuan dari kajian pustaka ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan membandingkan karakteristik kefir secara mikrobiologis dan fisikokimia yang dihasilkan dengan penggunaan susu sapi, susu kambing dan susu kerbau. Penelitian yang dilakukan berbentuk kajian pustaka dengan menggunakan referensi jurnal terakreditasi nasional minimal SINTA 4 serta terakreditasi internasional minimal Scopus Q4 hasil terbitan selama 10 tahun terakhir yang terkait dengan kefir. Penggunaan jenis susu yang berbeda berpengaruh terhadap mutu mikrobiologis dan fisikokimia kefir. Kefir dengan menggunakan susu kerbau memiliki pH (4,2-4,6) yang lebih rendah, kandungan CO2 (0,95%) yang lebih tinggi serta mutu mikrobiologis yang baik terutama terhadap kandungan khamir (5,37 x 105 CFU/ml) dibandingkan dengan kefir yang menggunakan susu sapi dan susu kambing serta memiliki tekstur yang sangat kental (355,00 mPa.s). Kefir dengan menggunakan susu kambing memiliki pH yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kefir susu sapi dan susu kerbau, memiliki kandungan abu yang tinggi dan tinggi akan mineral yaitu kalsium, fosfor, kalium, sodium dan magnesium bila dibanding dengan kefir susu kambing serta memiliki tekstur yang cair (9,46-15,81 mPa.s). Kefir dengan menggunakan susu sapi memiliki kandungan mineral tembaga, besi dan seng yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kefir susu kambing, serta memiliki tekstur yang sedikit kental (64,80-161,00 mPa.s). Berdasarkan mutu mikrobiologis dan fisikokimia, dapat disimpulkan bahwa kefir susu kerbau menghasilkan karakteristik kefir paling baik.

ABSTRACT:Kefir is a fermented dairy product that uses kefir grain and usually cow milk in the production process. Milk from different types of cattle has different nutritional composition that affects the microbiological and physicochemical of kefir. The utilization of goat and buffalo milk can be an alternative to cow milk because of their high nutritional content. Milk from different types of cattle has different nutritional composition that affects the microbiological and physicochemical of kefir. The purpose of this literature review is to determine and compare the microbiological and physicochemical of kefir produced from cow, goat, and buffalo milk. The study is carried out in the form of a literature review by using references from nationally accredited journals at least SINTA 4 and internationally accredited journals at least Scopus Q4. The use of different types of milk affects the microbiological and physicochemical of kefir. Kefir from buffalo milk has lower pH (4,2-4,6), high content of CO2 (0,95%), and good microbiological quality especially in yeast content (5,37 x 105 CFU/ml) with a very thick texture (355,00 mPa.s) compared to kefir made from cow and goat milk. Kefir from goat milk has higher pH than kefir from cow and buffalo milk, with higher ash content and higher mineral content of calcium, phosphor, potassium, sodium, and magnesium compared to cow milk kefir and has a thin texture (9,46-15,81 mPa.s). Kefir from cow milk has a higher mineral content of copper, zinc, and iron compared to goat milk kefir and has a slightly thick texture (64,80-161,00 mPa.s). Kefir from buffalo milk has the best microbiological and physicochemical quality.

Kata Kunci


kefir, jenis susu, mikrobiologis, fisikokimia

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Referensi


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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36441/jtepakes.v4i1.855

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