MUTU MIKROBIOLOGIS UDANG SELAMA PENYIMPANAN DALAM KEMASAN PLASTIK BIODEGRADABLE DENGAN MATRIKS DAMAR DAGING DAN PATI TAPIOKA

Iman Basriman, Dahni Betto Harso, Noryawati Mulyono

Abstrak


Shorea leprosula (damar daging) adalah salah satu tanaman yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan plastik biodegradable. Damar daging mengandung senyawa antimikroba sehingga plastik biodegradable yang dihasilkan juga memiliki sifat antimikroba. Untuk meningkatkan aktivitas antimikroba dalam plastik biodegradable dengan penambahan resin, bisa dilakukan penambahan bahan kimia lain yang juga bersifat antimikroba. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh matriks resin daging dengan tepung tapioka dalam pelapis kemasan biodegradable dengan penambahan seng klorida, perak nitrat, propionat dan propil paraben, terhadap kualitas mikrobiologis udang yang dikemas untuk penyimpanan. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial 5x5 dengan dua pengulangan, faktor pertama adalah jenis kemasan biodegradable dengan 5 level perlakuan (pelapisan lesitin + ZnCl2, lesitin + AgNO3, AgNO3, kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif), faktor kedua adalah waktu penyimpanan dengan 5 tingkat perlakuan (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 hari). Parameter kualitas yang diuji meliputi kadar air, jumlah lempeng total, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi dan Vibrio cholerae pada udang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan resin kemasan pati, perak nitrat, dan lesitin selama 8 hari penyimpanan, menunjukkan kadar air menurun, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemasan ini dapat mengurangi kadar air. Untuk pelapisan mikroba total, semua jenis kemasan dengan lesitin, seng klorida dan perak nitrat tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan, tetapi berbeda secara signifikan dari kemasan kontrol positif dan negatif. Sedangkan untuk pengujian Eschericia coli, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae menunjukkan hasil kemampuan menahan pertumbuhan spesifik yang umum untuk semua jenis kemasan. 

 

ABSTRACT: Shorea leprosula (resin flesh) is one of the plants that can be used as raw material in the manufacture of biodegradable plastics because it contains antimicrobial compounds, biodegradable plastics produced also have antimicrobial properties. To enhance the antimicrobial activity in the biodegradable plastics with the addition of resin flesh, other chemicals being antimicrobial properties can be introduced. This study aims to determine the effect of the matrix of resin flesh with tapioca starch in biodegradable packaging coated with zinc chloride, silver nitrate, propionate, propyl paraben, on the microbiological quality of the shrimp packed for storage purposes. The experimental design employed in this study was completely randomized factorial 5x5 with two repetitions, in which the first factor was the biodegradable plastics matrix of tapioca starch and resin flesh with 5 levels of treatment (coating lecithin + ZnCl2, lecithin + AgNO3, AgNO3, the positive control, and negative control), and the second factor was storage period with 5 levels of treatment (day 0,2,4,6,8). Quality parameters observed were moisture content, total plate count, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae of shrimp. The results showed that the addition of resin, silver nitrate, and lecithin to starch packaging for 8 days storage, demonstrated decreasing moisture content, so that it can be concluded that this packaging can reduce the moisture content. Total microbial coating counts for all kinds of packaging with lecithin, zinc chloride and silver nitrate showed no significant results difference, but significantly different from positive and negative control packaging. Meanwhile Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Vibrio cholerae tests showed the ability to restrain the specific growth being common to all types of packaging. Keywords: Shorea leprosula, antimicrobials, biodegradable

 

Kata Kunci


Shorea leprosula, antimikroba, biodegradable

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Referensi


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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36441/jtepakes.v1i1.184

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